What is wine?

Wine is a potable fermented alcoholic beverage, made from freshly gathered grapes.


In 6000BC, King Jamshid of Persia ordered his staff to store grape juice in jars so that he could enjoy it throughout the year. When winter arrived the King tasted the juice, but found it had become bitter. He marked the jars “poison” and dispatched them to a store. A lady in his court finding herself out of favor with the King, become so depressed and decided to end her life by drinking this poison.

Partial  Fermentation

Fermentation stop deliberately by killing yeast or by reducing temperature.

  1. Yeast grow at 5 Degree C
  2. Alcohol freezing point is -10 Degree C
  3. Alcohol evaporate at 78.2 Degree C

Types of Wine

A. Natural Table Wine/Still Wine

It is light wine and it alcohol contain 8-15%. These wines are simplest types of wine produce all over the world. These wines are natural red and white. The skin of black grape gives color to the red wine during fermentation. It is available in many countries with different varieties and qualities.

B. Fortified Wine

This is also called liquor wine and it containing 16-20% alcohol. The alcohol level is increase by adding brandy or other types of grape base spirit.



  1. Port
  2. Madeira
  3. Sherry
  4. Marsala
  5. Malaga     

C. Sparkling wine      

Its alcohol contain 8-15%. The CO2 gas is trapped in the wine before the bottle is sealed. When the bottle is open the CO2 release and it makes the wine to sparkle.


D. Aromatized Wine

Alcohol contain more than 16% and these wines are flavored with herbs and spices.



  1. Vermouth

E. Vintage Wine

These wine produce in a particular year when all the climate condition are favorable for cultivation of excellent quality grape. The particular year is maintain on the label.  

Tasting of Wine

Tasting of wine is done by for senses

  1. Sight     
  2. Smell
  3.  Taste 
  4. Touch/Feel

Description about Smell

a). Acetic – Smell of vinegar

b). Clean – Wine has no smell

c). Deep – Rich bouquet

d). Fruity – Smell of fruit

e). Flowering – Smell of flower

f). Green – Young or freshness

g). Peppery – Smell of pepper or sharpness ( these wine need more maturation)

h). Sulphry – Smell of bad egg

Description about Taste

a). Delicate – Light in flavor

b). Full bodied – A smell infill’s mouth with flavor

c). Heavy Bodied – Fuller than full bodied

d). Luscious – Creamy, soft

e). Length – Flavor remain after swallow

f). Robust – Strong in alcohol

h). Silky – Very smooth

i). Soft – Well balanced of blend and maturity


The vine needs a good balance of moisture and heat. Temperature should average 14-16Degree C the lowest annual average temperature necessary for the vine to flourish is 10Dgree C. It is estimated that the vine needs about 68 C of rain per year mainly in winter and spring. And at list 1400 hours of sunshine.

The Main Climate types are

A). Arid :- Desert landscape, no rain fro all or most of the year. Very hot summer and mild winter. 25 – 30 Degree C

B). Semi Arid :- No rain for more then half of the year, river dry in the summer, very hot summer and cold winter.

C). Continental :- Hot summer, cold winter. Rain for more than six month of the year.

D). Temperate :- Rain for all the year around, hot summer, cold winter, wet spring and atom.   

E). Maritime :- Rain all the year around high humidity, cooling breeze.

F). Micro Climate :- This is a beneficial climate for the vine it could be do with hill or mountain protecting the vines from the heavy wind or even a brake in the mountain range allowing the air to freshen and fan the vine in very hot weather. The clear brilliant morning sun will strike to the vineyard.  The rise and fall of the sun will also have an effect. These climate are excellent for the vine and also have moisture of the soil so all together it is beneficial climate for the vineyard.

G). Bio Climate :- This is the relationship of soil and climate in a specific vineyard such knowledge can be use to obtain stable yield of high quality grape.

Aspect :- Vineyard are ideally planted on south facing slop where the point and the sun and good drain ate setting is of prime important to capture the sunlight for photosynthesis and ripening. Some vineyard sited up to 243 miters on mountain side while many of the vineyard are located in river valley.

The Ideal Climate :- If an ideal climate were ever to exist it would include sufficient moisture and warm to enable the vines to grow and the grapes to ripen. Furthermore the right weather condition must prevail during the various stages of the growth cycle of the vines.


a). A cold winter will help initial growth and rest the vine.

b). Frost will kill disease and too much frost will kill the vines.

c). Enough rain to build moisture in the soil.


a). A mild, warm spring with gentle rain to encourage vine’s growth.


a). Flowering stage of the vine.

b). A warm temperature followed by hot sunny summer with little rain to develop fruiting.


a)A long fine and dry autumm to complete the ripening of grapes for the harvest.

  • The wine producing region of the world lie between latitudes 30 – 50 Degree in north and south of equator. The cool and damp climate condition are not suitable for the grapes to ripen fully. At the other extreme, in the hot and dry places which will be having too much heat and insufficient rain, leading over ripen grapes with low acidity.

Major climatic Dangers

  • Frost can destroy growing shoots in the spring and is particularly dangerous at the time of budding
  • Hail can break and damage young growth and especially late summer allows the grape to rot.
  • Heavy wind is disastrous during flowering stage and it also break young shoots.

This is especially important in those areas with unreliable climates where weather condition can drastically affect the vine, the size of the crop and the final quality of the wine.


Viticulture denotes how the vine is cultivated. An over worked vineyard without compensatory treatment or a neglected vineyard will only produce second rate wine so the farming of the vineyard is a prime important. It involve the following points.

  1. Vine Selection
  2. Keeping the vineyard healthy
  3. Ploughing to aerate the soil
  4. Fertilizing
  5. Pruning to regular quality
  6. Training
  7. Spraying to combat disease
  8. Harvesting 


   Unfortunately vine have one great weakness, they have not resistance to the aphie phylloxera. It is Greek word means dry leaves. This small yellow insect munture the roots of the vine and the form galls on the under side of the leaves. They sticks to the root and suck the juice(Sap) which kills the vine roots. Once its fix on the sap it multiply at lighting speed. This is native to North American and it is brought to Europe on bunch of table grapes. It was first notice in 1863 at Kew Garden and in Provence in the same year. For the next year it divested most of the world vineyard.

A). Oidium

                       It is powdery mildew this form patches of dusty mould on the grape and leaves, causing the grape to split.

B). Mildew

                       Mildew develop in dam area. It is very common vine disease which is noticeable when yellow patches appear on the leaves. When the leaves wither the grape become deprived of nourishment.

C). Grew Rot

                       It means black and white spot which destroys color  pigmentation in black grape and gives an unpleasant taste to the wine.

D). Coulure

                        This happen when there is soil deficiency or too much rain or uneven  temperature the flower on the vine are infertile.


                      It happen due to too much land stone in the soil and cause yellowing even death of the plant.

F). Pyralis

                    This tins butterfly moths pierce the grapes and destroys with in an hour.

G). Frost

                   It is usually come in spring, frost stunts the fermentation of bud which greatly reduce yield. It can be cure by fire heat and spraying water.

H). Hail

                It is particular danger specially just before the vintage when the grape skin are very thin. Hail can easily punch the skin and easily destroy the crop. 


  1. Crushing and pressing
  2. Treatment before fermentation

           A). Malo-Lactic fermentation

           B). Capitalization

3. Fermentation

4. Treatment after fermentation

            A). Racking

            B). Fining

            C). Filtration

5. Maturation

6. Blending

7. Labeling

The main part of vinification is conversion of grape juice into wine. The biological process of fermentation is understood by 19th century by French scientist Dr. Louis Pastuer.

The fermentation accurse when the yeast feeds on  sugars converting them to alcohol and CO2 the process may be two types.

1. Natural Fermentation :-

When the skins of the grapes is broken, the yeast which is present in the air comes in contact with the sugar in pulp resulting in fermentation. On natural fermentation the wild yeast produce 4% of alcohol.

At this level the wild yeast dies and the wine yeast start working until no sugar left or they are killed once the alcohol reach 15% .

Now a days the wines are produced by controlled fermentation.

2.Controlled Fermentation :-

 By killing wild yeast and unwanted bacterial action by adding SO2 it allow only wine yeast to work.

 The temperature of fermentation is strictly controlled. The yeast works between 5 – 40 Degree C. The temperature of fermentation must be kept within these limits.

          A). For red wine 15 – 20 Degree C :- This temperature helps to preserve aroma and flavor of grapes.

          B). For white wine 25 – 30 Degree C  :- The temperature for red wine helps to extract color.

Capitalization :-

 The yeast feeds on sugar produce alcohol. The sugar level of grape determine the alcohol. The alcohol is created from the amount of sugar which is present in the grape juice.

In the cool and difficult climate condition such as Northern Europe the little sun does not help to ripe the grapes fully which leads less in sugar. To adjust the sugar level external source of sweetness may be added before fermentation this give the yeast more nourishment and it helps to increase the alcohol level.

Malo – Lactic Fermentation :-

During the fermentation it is important to avoid the action of unwanted bacteria’s to prevent the wine from spoilage. The lactic acid bacteria attack the molic acid in the wine and it change the wine into lactic acid. Molic acid give harsh taste to the wine which is require for the wine. The lactic acid gives milk and curd taste which is not require for wine. This process is strictly control by wine makers.  

Dry Wine  :- Wine with no sugar

We can make Medium Wine with 3 ways

a). Unfermented must(juice) may be added to the dry wine.

b). Fermentation process deliberately stop so that natural sweetness is preserved. 

c). The high level sugar grape used so that the sweetness remain after fermentation.

Racking :-

 The fermentation ends when the yeast eats all sugar. Then the dies and settle at the bottom of the vat. These died yeast sediments are known as lees. The new wine is drown into new vat to clear the wine from the sediments. This done at regular interval until the wine clear off the sediment. This is known as racking.

Fining :-

The wine are fined to insure to free from unwanted haze substance which might cause problem after bottling. The fining agent such as Bentonite (Chinese Clay), Egg white, Gelatin, Oyster blood, Sturgeon fish bloodier mixed with the wine which attack the unwanted substance , settle at the bottom.

Filtration :-

After fining, the fining with unwanted substance are filtered and the wine will be bright.

Maturation/Aging :-

  It is invented by Dr. Louis Pastuer during the time of King Napoleon. He proved the process of aging. He showed by an experiment that the wine spoil when it left in contact with air when the cash are filled it develop the flavor of wine.

Bottling and Labeling :-

The wines are petal in different shape and different color. The labeling is so important for the wine because it give lot of information about the wine. The label can be variety of shape and size.                                        

              Some Important Point About Wine

  • Phenols :- Phenols give aroma to the wine.
  • Tannins :- Tannins are natural preservative for the wine.
  • Small amount of oxygen is required during maturation.
  • During mature wine observe extra tannins that effect the taste.
  • The strongest flavor of the wine comes from the most aromatics oaks.
  • Saccharometer :- To check the level of sugar.
  •  Ellipsoideus :- True wine yeast.
  • The pure wood come from the forest of Lemousin in France. It is quit aromatic and impart a strong oaky taste to the wine. 

Pasteurization :-

If the  wine has an alcohol contain level less than 14% it may heated or cold pasteurization through micro porous filter before bottling.

Stabilization :-

It is carried out to remove truces of tartaric acid. This acid present in the grape juice tent to crystallize in wine and if not removed completely it can slowly appear as glass like crystal in final bottle on storage.

Stabilization with respect to tartarats may involve chilling of wine that can crystallized tartarat and these crystal can be removed by filtration.

Wines of France

France is the largest exporter of fine quality wine in the world. It produce good quality of large quantity wine and varieties of wine. The main region of France is bellow.

a). Bordeaux

b). Burgundy/Beaujolais

c). Champagne

d). Alsace

e). The Loire Valley

f). The Rhone Valley

g). Provence

h). Jura and Savoie

i). Southwest

j). Languedoc – Roussillon

Now a day wine production and labeling of French wine is strictly control by European community wine making law. The first quality wine of France define by following rules of Europe.

Quality Wine Production in Specified Region (QWPSR)

     A). Appellation De Origine Controlee (AOC) :- Higher categories wines of France falls in this appellation these are quality wine.

     B). Vin Delimite De Quality Superieure (VDQS) :- Lesser quality of AOC wine, many wines given VDQS at first. If they maintain same quality for few years then it is given AOC

Vin De Table (VDT)

    A). Vin De Pays (VDP) :- Local or country wine of France. This can be produce from recommended grapes and reignited area.

    B). Vin De Consommation Courante (VDCC) :- These wines are produce for every day consumption and normal use. This can be sold by glass or carafe.  

  • Blanc – White
  • Rose – Pink
  • Rouge – Red
  • Sec – Dry
  • Demi Sec – Medium Dry
  • Doux – Sweet
  • Demi Doux – Medium Sweet
  • Cave – Under ground celler
  • Chai – Over ground celler
  • Cepage – Grpae plant variety
  • Chateau – Estate
  • Clos – Walled/closed vineyard
  • Cote – Slope/ hill side
  • Cremante – Sparkling wine
  • Cuvee – Blending
  • Manipulant – Grape growers
  • Recolet – Harvest
  • Superieure – Strong in alcohol
  • Negociant – Wine Handler


It is the queen of French red wine. It was under the English people for 300 years from 1152. It is the largest and most important fine wine producing region of France. It produce mostly AOC wines and also produce some table red wines but it doesn’t carry the name Bordeaux.

  • Location :- in the south west of France near the Atlantic coast around the city of Bordeaux.
  • Size :- 10,725 km2
  • Size of the Vineyard :- 1,12,000 hectares.
  • Production :- 850 millions bottles.
  • Climate :- Because of river , mild and humid climate.
  • Soil :- Clay and limestone.
  • Bordeaux Products :-
  • A).Tannic Red Wine :- These wines need more maturation
  • B).Light Red Wine :- Released young, early drinking purpose
  • C).Very fine Sweet Wine 
  • D).Dry White Wine :- For early drinking

Grape Varieties

Red Grapes

  1. Cabernet Sauvignon
  2. Cabernet Franc
  3. Merlot
  4. Malbec
  5. Petit Vardot

White Grapes

  1. Sauvignon Blanc
  2. Semillon
  3. Muscadelle

Understanding Label :-

Bordeaux label shows the following details.

  1. Name of the vineyard
  2. District
  3. Quality level

Bordeaux product sold under general appellation for red wine and white wins. Other appellation of Bordeaux related to actual district of production. 

  1. Medoc Region :-

                                   It is the classical area of Bordeaux. It produce extra ordinary red wine only it divided into two parts.

      A). South Part :- It produce higher quality wine which is name as Haut Medoc.

      B). Bas Medoc :- They produce both red and white wines.

The Medoc wines are sold under Chateau name(chateau is grape cultivation area). Out of 100 of chateau , 58 classified as “Cru-Classe”, they are again divided into five level of excellency.

a). Chateau Haut – Brion

b). Chateau Lafite

c). Chateau Latour

d). Chateau Margaux

e). Chateau Rothschild-added in 1973

Four main communes in Medoc which produce higher quality wine which is maintain on the label.

a). St. Estephe

b). St. Julian

c). Pauillac

d). Margaux

2. Graves :-

                   It produce red and white wines. The AOC appellation given to both wines. This region particularly produce aromatic red wines.

3. Sauternes :-

                   This district lies 30 miles southeast of Bordeaux. It produce most famous sweet wine and AOC state is given only to the sweet wine. Best sweet wine of Sauternes are produce from the grape which is effected by Nobel Rot.

    In 1855 the best wines of Sauternes classified as “Chateau De Yquem”. Now a days 11 other Chateau are classified as Premier Cru/Premium Growth.

4. Entre-Deux Mers :-

                                       It produces AOC white wines only. The red wine produced from the place is maintained as AC Bordeaux.

5. St. Emillion :-

                            It is a small town built on hill. Cultivated only Merlot grapes and it produces only AOC red wines.

6. Pomerol :-

                       It produced very small quantity of good quality  wines. Only red wines get the AOC which is sold at higher price. Here famous estate is Petrus Lepin.

                                                                Brand Names

  1. Chateau Latour (Red)
  2. Mouton Cadet (Red)
  3. Sauternes (White Sweet)
  4. Chateau Lamothe (Red)
  5. Mouton Cadet Blanc (White)
  6. La Ploya Merlot(Red)
  7. P and O Claret (Red)
  8. Chateau Ground Larose(Red)
  9. Domaine Du Grand Mayne(Red)
  10. Select Claret(Red)

Bordeaux wine goes well with oyster, pouilic lamp, duck with  mushroom.

             Some Important Point About Bordeaux Wines

  • Some wine label can be found the phrase “Mis En Bouteiles Au Chateau” which means bottle at estate. If it is written Bordeaux Superieur which means that it is about 1% higher in alcohol .
  • A Bordeaux wine label will include the information common to all AOC French wine, wine maker, vintage year, geographic origin etc.
  • In 1855 under Napoleon 3rd the Bordeaux chamber of comers was order to produce a ranking of the wine of Bordeaux for universal exposition in Paris. This ranking has remain largely unchanged since than although additional region where classified under similar system at latter time

No all of Bordeaux was classified only the Medoc, Sauternes, Graves and St. Emillion region are classified.

Burgundy (Bourgogne)

* Vineyard area – 29,500 hectors

* No. of Vineyard 100 AOC

* Grape produce  – 59% white

                              -33.8% red

                              -6.7% cremante

* Climate – continental climate

* Soil – Soil difference from district to district. Most important soil are clay, limestone and granite.

* Burgundy is situated in centre part of France. This region produce dry red wine, white wine and few sparkling wines.

Red Grapes :-

                       1. Pinot Noir :- Classical grape of northern Burgundy.

                       2. Gamay :- Grape of Beaujolais.

White Grapes :-

                       1. Chardonnay :- Classical grape for white wine.

                       2. Aligote :- It is lesser quality of white wine grapes.

Quality Grading :-

  1. Burgundy Rouge :- It is made from Pinot Noir Grapes.
  2. Bourgogne Blanc :- It is first quality white wine made from chardonnay grapes.
  3. Bourgogne Aligote :- First quality white wine made from Aligote grapes.

District :-

                  Some good quality wine of Burgundy takes the district name as their wine name.

  1. Beaujolais
  2. Chablis


                       The Burgundy communes added the name along with vineyard name as wine name.

  1. Gevrey – Chambertin
  2. Puligny – Montrachet 


  1. Chablis (Shah-blee) :-

                                                        It is a small district producing good quality white wine only from Chardonnay grapes most of the Chablis wines are mature in stainless steel vat but few producer also use wooden vat. Chablis produce four different quality wine which are a follows. Chablis produce 100% white wine only.

  1. Chablis Vintage Year
  2. Chablis Premier Cru
  3. Chablis Grand Cru
  4. Petit Chablis

2. Cote D’ Or (Golden Slope) :-

                                                            This district is divided into two slope/part.

  1. Cote D’ Nuits :- It is northern part. It produce good quality red wine from Pinot Noir grapes. They produce 95% red wine and 5% white wine.
  2. Cote D’ Beaune :- It is southern part and it produce good quality red wine and white wine also. They produce 70% red and 30% white wine.

3. Cote D’ Chalonnaise :-

                                                                It produce good quality red wine as well as white wine. Some time it is call Mercury region because it produce first quality wine in different form. They produce 60% red and 40% white wines.

4. Maconnaise :-

                                            Produce both red and white wine but important is white wine which produce from Chardonnay grapes.

5. Beaujolais (Boh-Zho-Lay):-

                                                                          It is produce young and fresh fruity red wine. It is divided into two part North and South. North part produce superier Beaujolais where as south part produce bulk quality of early drinking wine.

* Beaujolais Village (Bho-Zho-Lay-Vih-Lahzh)

* Beaujolais Nouveau (Boh-Zho-Lay-New-Voh)

The first vintage wine is call Beaujolais Nouveau which is produce for early drinking. It is release third Thursday of November every year. They produce 99% red and 1% white wines.

Food and Burgundy Wines

*  Burgundy red wine are excellent with beef, game such as Pheasant and poar, roast of pork and delegate cheese.

*  White wine goes well with sha shrims and goat cheese.

Brands Names

  1. Voits St. George’s – Red
  2. Gevrey Chambertin – Red
  3. Macon Superion – Red
  4. Beaujolais Villages – Red
  5. Bourgogne Hautes Cotes Du Beaune – Red
  6. Brouilly – Red
  7. Chablis Cuvee – White
  8. Pouilly Fuisse – White
  9. Meursault – White
  10. Puligny Montrachet – White

Rhone Valley

Rhone is the oldest wine producing region of France. In Rhone Pope John XXII built his new Palace but he didn’t live long. He died in 1334. After his death, this Palace is known as “Chateauneuf Du Pape” which means Pope’s New Palace.

Rhone uses the general abbreviation of France. It is divided into two parts.

  1. North Rhone :-

                                Vineyards in north Rhone situated by Terrace of the cliffs. So most of the work is done by the hand only because of that it is expensive to produce wine here. It produce only Syraz/Siraz grapes.

Famous communes of north Rhone also produce 1st quality red wine. Each communes have their own AOC eg. Cote Rotie, Harnitage etc.

2. South Rhone :-

                                No cliffs it produces red wine, rose wine and white wine. In contrast north Rhone produce fine quality wine in small amount where as south Rhone produces large quantity of average quality wine plus few great one.


Red:-    1. Syraz 2. Grenache

White :- 1.Cinsault 2. Mourvedre

Appellation :-

                        South Rhone use general appellation. Apart from that there are 16 villages which has reputation for good quality wine. These villages use the village name along with general appellation. There are few communes producing good quality wine the most important are eg. Tavel (a community) it produces Dry Rose Wine which is produce by red and white grapes togather.

Chateauneuf Du Pape(District) :-

                                                         It contain many properties. It is also a famous red wine. Produce from the blend of 13 grapes varieties. Here many of the vineyards are covered by large pudding stone(pergolas) for the grape to ripe thoroughly. The stone reflect of sun light because of this reason it produces good quality wine always.

Area :- 73,468 hectors

No of Estate :- 6,000

Production :- 283 million hecto liter/ 413 million botteles

In term of surface area it is 2nd largest AOC wine region.

Soil :- Clay and granite

Here 75% wines are red wine

  • Hermitage :-

                           It is famous wine and it take its name  hill of Hermitage above the town of Tain. It is deep and dark wine aged above 20 years.

  • Cote Roti :-

                          It is unusual red wine that contain upto 25% of white viogner, it is blend but more often it is made from Syraz grape.

  • Chateau Grillet and Condrieu :-

                                                            These are expensive white wine. These wines are clean and highly aromatic and the same time it is powerful and full bodied. These wine has long life.

Loire Valley

It is the largest river in France. It produce all styles of wine in different color and different tastes.

Grapes :-

                1. Sauvignon Blanc (White)

                2. Chenin Blanc (White)

                3. Muscadet (White)

                4. Cabernet Franc (Red)


a). Pays Nantais(Nantes) :-

                                               It produce good quality white wines. It is home of muscadet . Muscadet is one of the largest selling wine from Loire Valley. These are often drunk young. But some better quality muscadet are traditionally bottled directly with its lees and labelled as muscadet ‘Sur-Lie’ means wine matured along with dead yeast sediments to obtain flavor and freshness.

b). Anjau Saumur :-

                               Produces AOC white wine, AOC rose wine and good quality sparkling wine.

Soil :- Tufa(Volcanic chalk)

The combination of Tufa and chenin blanc produces good quality sparkling wine. Also produces very famous Rose wine from Gamay grape. If it is produced from Gamay it is named as ‘Anjau Saumur Rose Wine’. If they use other grape usualy cabernet franc then it is called ‘Cabernet D’ Anjau’.

c). Touraine :-

                        It produced all styles of wine but famous are white wines. Anther appellation for white wine in Touraine is ‘Vouvray’ which is produce from chenin blanc grapes.

d). Central Vineyard :-

                                      It is situated in central part of France. It produce famous white wine which is call ‘Fume Blanc’ from sauvignon blanc grapes.

Wine Names

1.Muscadet :-

                           It is white wine with citrus flavor. Its age is 1-2 years

2. Sancerre :-

                       White wine made from 100% sauvignon blanc grape and it has goose berry flavor and plenty of acid. Its age is 2-3 years.

3. Pouilly Fume:-

                             It is also white wine made from sauvignon blanc grapes. Its age is 3-5 years.

Q. What is the different between Pouilly Fuisse and Pouilly Fume?

Ans. Pouilly Fume is is made from 100%  sauvignon blanc grapes and comes from Loire Valley. Where as Pouilly Fuissse is made from 100% chardonnay grapes and it is come from Macommaise of Burgundy region.

Food and Loire Wine

* Pouilly Fume goes well with smoked salmon tourbot with hollandaise, chicken, veal with cream sauce.

* Sancerre goes well with selfish and simple food of the sea because Sancerre is drier than the pouilly fume.

* Muscadet goes well with selfish clams and oyster.

* Vouvray goes well with fruit and cheese.

* In Loire 56% of the AOC wine produce are white and 96% of those are dry.

* The Loire is the largest white wine region in France and 2nd largest in sparkling wine production.

* Loire Valley often call Garden of France.


It is most famous sparkling wine of world. It is a region of France producing sparkling wine. It is 145 km from Paris. Champagne region is divided in 4 zones

  1. Mountain of Reims
  2. Valley of Marne
  3. The Aube Department
  4. Cotes De Blancs

Grapes :-

     Only 3 grapes are permitted to make champagne.

  1. Pinot Noir
  2. Pinot Meunier
  3. Chardonnay

History :-

                In 1668, Abbey of Hautvillers appointed new Head Wine Cellar Mr. Pierre Perignon. He is the first person to exploit the idea of trapping gas during fermentation.

The clearing of sediment development by Mr. Widow Clicquot in 19th century. He introduced two system to clear sediments.

  1. Remouage             2. Degorgement

Vintage :-

                        Grapes are harvested in the month of sept by hands only. The prime condition grapes are gathered to give importance to its quality.

There grapes are pressed to extract the juice. The 1st pressed juice is called ‘Vin De Cuvee’. The 2nd pressed juice is known as ‘Premier Taille’. The 3rd pressed juice which is banned for champagne production is called ‘Deuxiene Taille’.

After the harvesting the long and cool fermentation takes place in normal way of wine making which gives dry wine. This wine will have 11% of alcohol.

The following sequence of process used to turn the dry wine into sparkling wine.

a). Assemblage :-

                               The still wine are blended togather during spring. The object of blending is to produce a style of wine. Each champagne producers have their own style.

b). Liqueur De Tirage :-

                                          It is a process of mixing old champagne, sugar, yeast along with dry wine in bottle. These bottles are immediately sealed with cork and wire and these bottle are stacked in dark and cool place.

c). Second Fermentation :-

                                               Second fermentation takes palce in the bottle which last upto 3 month. During this stage, the alcohol level increase, the internal pressure reaches upto 6 atmosphere.

d). Ageing :-

                     After fermentation these wines are mature in bottle. For non vintage champagne, it must be minimum of 15 months and for vintage champagne, it must be minimum 3 years. During this process the wine gains aroma and flavor.

e) Remouage :-

                           It means traditional way of removing sediment from bottle. These bottles are placed in a special design rack which is called “Pupitre”. These bottles are racked necked down slightly. The removable person (Riddler) turn and till each bottle to encourage the sediment to settle at the neck of the bottle. Over 2-3 months the sediment moves slowly into the neck of the bottle.

f). Degorgement :-

                                 It means ‘dischargement’. It is a process of removing ‘Lees’ from the neck of the bottle. It is done by processing the neck through freezing solution for 7-10 minuet which creates small plug of ice. And removed the cork and wire, the black of ice holding the sediment is forced out by the pressure of the gas. It can be removed by hand. Not by any machine

g). Liqueur De Expedition :-

                                                 The little loss of champagne by discharge is replaced by dosage which determine the style and sweetness of champagne.

This process is considered the best way of making sparkling wine. The finest bubbles last longer.

h).Dosage :-

Terms Sugar Description
Extra Brut Nil V.V.V. Dry
Brut Upto 1% V. Dry
Extra Sec 1-2% Medium Dry
Sec 2-4% Medium Sweet
Demi Sec 4-6% Sweet
Demi Doux 6-8% Sweeter than DemiSec
Doux 8-8+% Luscious

Types of Champagne Producer

* Negotiant Monipulant(NM) :-

                                                       It means marchant handler. This producer purchase the grapes from others and they makes sparkling wine on their own and sell their own.

* Recolante Monipulant(RM) :-

                                                  Means harvest handler. They makes wine from their own grapes and sell their own.

* Co-operative Monipulant(CM) :-

                                                          Means co-operative handler. The base wine derived from different sources.

* Marque Auxilary(MA) :-

                                              A brand name which can be associated with the producer who sell their wine and with a second label to make difference from their own main brand.

  Style Of Champagne

Cuvee De Prestige :- It is luxuries blend of wine expensive. It is produced in vintage year. This may be single vintage blend or combination of different vintages.

Ex.              1. Dom Perignon

                   2. Bollinger RD

                   3. Pol Roger Winston Chwchill

                   4. Tattinger

Vintage Champagne :- This is produced from grapes grown in single good year. This year appear on label.

Non Vintage Champagne :- This is blend of wines from different years among these the finest will have vintage wine in the blend.

Pink Champagne :- This may be vintage or non vintage character. The skin of red grapes is allowed to get the color. It can be also produced by blend of Red wine and white wine before bottling. The name of the pink champagne is called ‘Bouzy’.

Cremate:-  This is semi sparkling wine having 3.5 atmosphere of pressure.


Capital of Alsace – Strasbourg

* Location – North East of France, between the Vasges and Rhine river.

* Size – 190 km long and 50 km wide, this is the smallest region of France.

* Size of the vineyard – 15,000 hectors

* Production – 165 million bottles, 95% of that wines are white wine.

* Types of wine – Refreshing dry and sweet white wine.

* White Grapes –

  1. Riesling
  2. Gewurztraminer
  3. Pinot Blanc
  4. Sylvaner

* Red Grapes –

  1. Chessles
  2. Muscat De Alsace

* Climate – It has continental climate(freezing winter and hot summer)

* Soil – No predominant soil, even in short distance the soil are various. Normally it can be granite soil, red sand, stone and chalk.

* Alsace is the third largest producer of AOC white wine. 95% of Alsace are white wine. Alsace wines are named by the grapes varieties.     

Alsace was originally a part of Holy Roman Emperor. It become to France at the end of 30 years war in 1648. Later on it was annexed by German in 1870 and was returned back to France in 1919. It lies in North East of France and bordered with German. The Vasges mountain separates Alsace from the France. It shelters the Alsace vineyard from excessive vain and heavy wind.

Wine Specialties

* Edelzwicker :- It is a type of wine produced with a blend of noble variety of grapes

* Vandage Tradide :- Late harvested grapes. This kind of wine are produce when the climate condition are favorable.

* Flute D’ Alsace :- Alsace wine are bottle in long green bottle similar to German. This types are known as flute d’ Alsace.

Producers Name

  1. Hugel
  2. Trimbach
  3. Beyer

Brands Name

  1. Domaine Zind – Humbrecht – Riesling
  2. Albert Boxler – Riesling
  3. Albert Boxler Riesling Gris
  4. Cave De Turcheim
  5. Josmeyer – Riesling
  6. Pierre Sparr – Riesling
  7. Dopff Au Moulin – Gewurztraminer
  8. Francois Baur – Riesling
  9. Domaine Charles Baur – Riesling
  10. Domaine Charmat – Pinot Gris
  11. Domaine Saint – Remy – Pinot Gris

                Alsace wines and food

  1. Fish stew
  2. Simmered Chicken
  3. Poached egg
  4. Trout
  5. Red cabbage with apple chestnut
  6. Cheese
  7. Raisin and almond yeast cake
  8. Fruit tart
  9. Cheese tart


* Location – In the south of France between Aix-En-Provence and Rhone Valley of Nice(Nice is a river name in France).

* Size – 31,400 secure miters.

* Size of the vineyard – 27,000 hectors

* Production – 140 million bottles, 75% are rose wines.

* Types of wine – Dry fruity rose wine also dry white wine, red wine and sweet wines.

* Soil – Limestone and sand.

* Climate – Mild winter and hot summer.

* Main Cities –  1. Nice 

                                2. Marseille

                                3. Toulon      

                                4. Aix-En-Provence

* Red Grapes –

  1. Cabernet Sauvignon
  2. Syrah
  3. Cinsault
  4. Grenache
  5. Mourvedre
  6. Carignon

* White Grapes –

  1. Semillon
  2. Rolle
  3. Ugni Blanc
  4. Clairette
  5. Bourboulenc Blanc

Provence is one of the most beautiful region in France, it is also known as “Sun Kissed Region” of France. It produce all styles of wine in different quality. Provence vineyard is very old. The Roman where the first to grown vin there . It is not for Marseille Port. Provence is very well known for its rose wine. The region produce almost all of the rose France wine production.

How ever red and white wine from Provence are improving and some of them are already improved and it is in the international market.

 Brands Name

  1. Sauveconne
  2. Domaine La Suffrene
  3. Mirabeau
  4. Evelyne Resnick
  5. Cuvee Jeanne
  6. Chateau Castel Desmavres

   Other Region of France

  1. Midi – Belly of France
  2. Roussillon
  3. Corsica
  4. Jura

Wines Of Italy

Italian vineyards are oldest vineyard in Europe. It produce in large quantity of wine and many variety than other country in world. Italy produce more of normal quality wine. It is the largest producer in the world. Italian wines are not top quality but Italy have few export quality of wine.

Table Wine Categories :-

  1. Vino Da Tavola (VDT):- It is normal quality table wine. It is simplest wine produce all over Italy. It is produce for local consumption. It is simplest and cheapest wine.
  2. Indacazione Geografica Tipica (IGT):- It is country wine of Italy. It can be produce only from designated area and specified grapes. This appellation was created in 1992.

          a). Tignanello

          b). Sassicaia

QWPSR Wines :-

  1. Denominazione Di Origine Controllata (DOC):- It is the first quality wine of Italy introduce in 1963. DOC wines guaranty the quality and the following.

                                     1. The vineyard name

                                     2. Method of production

  1. Denominazione Di Origine Controllata Garantita (DOCG):- It is the top most quality wine of Italy, it is reserve only for few wines. Each bottle carries Govt. seal.

           Eg.  –  1. Barolo              2. Chianti

Grapes varieties :- Italy has enormous number of grapes and these can be divided in three grapes.

  1. Native Grapes of Italy

       Red :- a). Nebbiolo

                  b). Sangiovese

                  c). Barbera

                  d). Lambrusco

      White :- a). Verdecchio

                      b). Trebbiano

                      c). Malvasia

2. Grapes originally brought from some other country but time has established them as traditional variety.

      Red :-     Merlot

      White:-  Pinot Grigio

3. Prominence Grapes :

     Red :-      Cabernet Sauvignon

     White :-  Chardonnay

* Understanding the label :-

DOC and DOCG wines states the area of origin as wine name. Eg.  – Barolo,  Fruscati. Some DOC and DOCG wines states grape name also. There two words are joined by D, DI, DEI, DELL and DELLA.

  1. Barbera D Alba (‘Barbera’ is Grape Name and ‘Alba’ is the place name).
  2. Brunello Di Montalcino (‘Brunello is grape name and ‘Montalcino’ is the place name).

* Consorzio Seal :- Consorzio is a voluntary association of producers within a specific area. Each association has its own symbol. If the symbol appears on wine label, it indicate that the wines are very carefully controlled and are above DOC requirement.  

* For making DOCG wines they followed traditional method and use traditional grapes.

   Common words on Label  

  1. Secco – Dry
  2. Dolce – Sweet
  3. Amabile – Medium Sweet
  4. Bianco – Clear/White
  5. Rosso – Rose
  6. Rosado – Red
  7. Vrndemia – Vintage
  8. Reserva – Quality Wine
  9. Vecchio – Old
  10. Classico – Heartland of District
  11. Espumante – Sparkling
  12. Frizzante – Semi Sparkling
  13. Chiaretto – Deep Rose
  14. Nero – Deep Red
  15. Vino Novello – Young Wine
  16. Vigneto – Vineyard
  17. Reciato – DOCG Red or Sweet Wine
  18. Produttore – Producer
  19. Cantina – Winery
  20. Appoccato – Light Wine
  21. Amaro – Bitter or Dry
  22. Azienda – Estate
  23. Annata – Year

        Q. What is Amarone?

Ans. Amarone is type of valpolicella wine made by a special process in the ‘Venetto’ region. Only the ripest grapes from the top of each bunch used after picking they are dry in a straw mat. This wine alcohol contain 14-16%. Famous producers name are :- Mr. Masi, Mr. Bertani, Mr. Tommmasi, Mr. Allegrini, Mr. Quintarelli.

Important Districts Name

  1. Velled Aosta
  2. Pied Monte(Famous sweet sparkling wines eg Asti Spumante)
  3. Lambardy
  4. Venetto
  5. Liguria
  6. Tuscany
  7. Marches
  8. Umbria
  9. Lazio
  10. Abruzzi
  11. Campania
  12. Molise
  13. Puglia
  14. Sicily (Famous fortified wines eg. Marsala)
  15. sardinia

Wine Label

The mostly wine label has rectangle shape, some producer use more creative shape. And in some cases even brake the label into two separates part the following information maintain on label.

  1. Types of wine
  2. Wine appellation
  3. Additional denomination
  4. Vintage year
  5. Name of the wine
  6. Color of the wine
  7. Quantity of the wine in ml
  8. Alcohol contain by volume
  9. Nation of origin
  10. Name of the bottling company
  11. Name of the importer

                                            DOC Laws

  1. The geographic limit of each region.
  2. The grape varieties that can be used.
  3. The percentage of each grape used.
  4. The maximum amount of wine that can be produce per acre.
  5. The minimum alcohol contain of the wine.
  6. The ageing requirement, such as how long a wine should in wood and bottle for certain wine.

* All of Italian DOC wines, 60% are red wine.

* The biggest difference between the AOC of France and DOC of Italy is that, the DOC has ageing requirement.

* There are more than 300 DOC wine producer and 20% of the total wine producing.

 Brands Name

  1. Remo Farina – Red – Venetto
  2. Chianti Classico – Red – Tuscana
  3. Soave Classico – White – Venetto
  4. Pinot Grigio – White – Venetto
  5. Frascati Superiore – White – Lazio
  6. Brunelio Di Montallino – Red – Tuscana
  7. Asti spumante – Sparkling – Pied Monte
  8. Vino Noblle De Monte Pulciano – Red
  9. Vino Rosso De Tuscana  – Rose
  10. Prosecco Asti
  11. Moscato De Asti
  12. Vernaccia Di Sam Gimignano
  13. Vinsanto – Sparkling

Chianti :-

                 According to DOCG requirement, wine maker are required to used at lest 80% ‘Sangiovese’ to produce ‘Chainti’. The DOCG also increases to the use of other grapes by allowing an unprecedented are 20% non traditional grapes like ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, ‘Merlot’ and ‘Syrah’.

Some well known producer in Chianti are :-

  1. Barolo
  2. Antinori
  3. Brolio
  4. Castello
  5. Banfi
  6. Fontodi
  7. Melini
  8. Monsanto
  9. Rissoli
  10. Ruffino Nozzole

Tuscany :-

                   The greatest Italian red wine are :-

  1. Brunello Di Montalcino
  2. Vino Nobile Di Montepulciano
  3. Carmignano

All of these wines are made with Sangiovese.

Some famous producer in Tuscany are :-

  1. Barbi
  2. Constanti 
  3. Altesins 
  4. La Poderina
  5. Lisini
  6. Soldera
  7. Caparzo
  8. Gaia

Pied Monte :-

                        Some of the finest red wines are produce in Pied Monte. Two of the best DOCG wines to come from this region in North West Italy are :-

  1. Barolo
  2. Barbaresco

The major grapes of Pied Monte are ‘Dolcetto’, ‘Barbera’ and ‘Nebbiolo’.

Some famous producer are :-

  1. Vietti           
  2. Marcarini          
  3. Caretto
  4. Prunotto     
  5. Marchesi          
  6. Sandrone

Venetto :-

                  This is one of the Italy largest wine producing region. Even you don’t recognize the name immidiatly but can consistence easily to drink and ready to be consume that is.

  1. Valpolicella         
  2. Bardolino         
  3. Soave

Some well known producer are :-

  1. Bolla                              
  2. Folonari                 
  3. Anselmi
  4. Santa Sfia                     
  5. Allegrini                  
  6. Quintarelli

Wines Of German

Because  of 30 years war during 17th century cause general decin to German viticulture which result in the growing industry generate more profit than the wine industry. In those time German was selling chef blended wine in many region. There are often sweeten according to German customer taste.

                              In 1971 German Government put rules on wine making industry and wine making law. That has made German wine among the most carefully regulated wine in the world. German has 2.5 thousand accord of land for the cultivation of grapes. German vineyard produce around 87% white wine vines.

Grapes  of German

      Noble Grapes

  • Sulvaner
  • Riesling
  • Muller Thurgav     White

Normal Grapes

  • Kerner
  • Roullander
  • Elbling
  • Mario Musket
  • Gewurztraminer

Types of German Wine

  • Weisherbst :- 

                                     Rose wine made from specified red grapes.

  • Rotling :-

                                    Rose wine made from combination of red and white grapes.

  • Sekt :-

                     Sekt white sparkling wine made from white grapes.

  • Perlwein :-

                         Red, sparkling wine made from red grapes which is also called spritzing.

German Wine Grade

                    Table Wine Grade

  • Deutscher Tafelwien:-

                                              It is cheapest wine in German it is simple wine and produce in any part of German.

  • Deutscher Landwien:-

                                              It is country wine of German produce from specified grapes and designated  area. It is high quality of table wine.

  • QBA(Qualitatawein Bestimmte Anbaugebiete):

                                    It means designated  quality wine region. There are 13 regions designated for these kind of wine. These wines are quality wine which will under go chemical and sensory taste to reveal the potential alcohol contain. There in no blending in these kinds of wine. The alcohol label may be increase by chapatlisation. 

  • QMP(Qualitatawein Mit Pradikat) :-

                                                                            These wines are finest and most expensive wines non of these wine can be chapatlise. Pradikat wine must come from a specific area it is divided into six according to higher level of sugar, produce by late harvesting and selective thinking.

                      The greatest wines produce in German into the following six categories.  

  1. Kabinett:-

                           The wines are from the first harvest which was kept separately by the wine producer. But now on day they producing for customer and it is light in style.

2.  Spatlese:-

                         It is late harvest grapes picked not early than seven days after main harveat.

3.   Auslese:-

                       Specially selected sugar in rich bunches of grapes.

4.   Beerenauslese:-

                                    These grapes are over ripen which are probably affected by noble root.

5.   Trockenbeerenawlese:-

                                                 These wine are produce from dry grapes which is affected by noble root.

6.  Eiswein :-

                       The sugar in this grapes should reach beeresnauslese and it is harvest only when the climate condition are favorable . 

     (-7 c to -12 c)

Understanding Label 

  • Anbaugebiete            -Region
  • Berriche                      -District
  • Gemeinde                   -Village/community
  • Grusslayen                  -Collection of vineyard
  • Einzelagen                  -Single vineyard
  • Halbtroken                 -Medium dry
  • Qualitatswein            -Quality wine
  • Zeltinger                     -Vineyard
  • Spatlese                  -Late harvest
  • Auslese                  -Select picking
  • Eiswein                  -Ice wine
  • Kabinett                -The 1st level of ripeness
  • Beeren                  -Individual Berries
  • Aus                        -Select
  • Spat                       -Late
  • Lese                      -Picking

German Wine Producers

  • Fritz Haaz
  • Egon Muller
  • Dr. Loosen
  • Keller
  • Strub
  • Kessier
  • Robert Weil
  • Dr. Deinhard
  • Darting
  • Lingenfelder
  • J.J. Prum

German Wine

  • There are above 10,000 growers.
  • The total production 9 millions hector liter equal to 1.2 billion bottle.

   Brand Names

  • Piespoter Michelbery              White
  • Niersteiner Gutes Domtal       White
  • Piespoter Gold Tropf Chen Riesling
  • Sholas Am Rhein                      White
  • Blue Naan                                  Red
  • Dr. Loosen                                 Red
  • Bloom                                       White

      Region Names

  1. Ahr
  2. Mittelrhein
  3. Masel
  4. Rheingau
  5. Nahe
  6. Pfalz
  7. Franken
  8. Baden
  9. Saale
  10. Sachsen
  11. Rheinhessen
  12. Wunttembery
  13. Hessische Bergstrasse

Wines of Spain

History :-

                        Spain is the 3rd largest country in the world to produce the wine. It has more land than any other country in the world for cultivates the grapes. It produce all types on wine in all styles.

      Apart from sherry it produce large quantity of light wine. They are mostly dry and it can be red, white and rose.

Red Grapes of Spain

  • Temparanello
  • Graciano
  • Mazuelo
  • Grenache
  • Cabernet Franc
  • Monastrell
  • Merlot
  • Carbernet Sauvignon

White Grapes of Spain

  • Airen
  • Charddonny
  • Malvasia
  • Parellada
  • Xerello
  • Maebeo
  • Garnacia Blanco


                        Normally various from place to p,ace.


                  Chalk, lime stone and decomposed rock.

Quality Grading

  1. Table Wine Categories


                                                      Simple and cheapest wine, produce in all over Spain. Produce for regular and every day drinking purpose.                  


                                                           It is country  wine produce from the recommended grapes and designated areas.                   

  • QWPSR(Quality Wine Produce in Specified Regions)

          DO(Denominacion De Origen):-

                                                                      First quality wine of Spain introduce in 1970.

DOCA(DO(Denominacion De Origen Calificada):-

                                                                                        It is the highest quality grade wine of Spain introduce in 1991. In initially introduce for ‘ROIJA’ wine.

Consejo Seal

    Each region have their own regulating body which regulate and control the following of DO and DOCA wine.

                      A. Vine Variety

                      B. Situation of the vineyard

                      C. Viticulture and vinification

                      D. Alcoholic strength

Hierrnehy Term On Label

  • Vino   –   Joven-young wine
  • Crianza   –   Period of ageing before release
  • Reserva   –   Increasing the degree of ageing (Quality Wine)
  • Grand Reserva   –   The time in new oak cask

Common Word on Label

  • Blanco      –     White
  • Rosada     –      Rose
  • Tinto        –       Red
  • Dolce       –       Sweet
  • Secco       –       Dry
  • Bodega   –        Winery
  • Cava        –        Cellar/Sparkling wine made by traditional method
  • Espumoso –     Sparkling wine
  • Owocado   –     Medium sweet
  • Granvas      –     Sparkling wine made in tank method.

Region Names

  1. Lomancha:-

                                    Produce largest quantity of cheapest red wine. Valdepenes (Valley of stone) is the largest and centre point for production for  quality red wine which is the best for ‘Sangria’.

  • Rioja:- 

                       It produce vanilla flavored wines  due to traditional ageing in ‘Barreque’(small oak cask -225 lits). Rioja is divided into 3 zone.

  • Rioja Alta
  • Rioja Vaja
  • Rioja Alavesa

                 The quality of Rioja wine differs from zone to zone and the finest comes from the above 3 zone.

         The outstanding producer are as follows.

  1. Marques De Caceres
  2. Marques De Murrica
  3. Marques De Riscal
  4. Lopez De Heredia
  5. Vina Solidad
  6. CVNE:-Caparnia Vinicoladel Nor-De-Espagnol  

Ageing Hierarchy of Rioja wine

  • Sincrianza:-

                           Young wine, one year in bottle

  • Contrianza:-

                    It one year in cask followed by six month in bottle

  • Reserva:-

                   One year in cask and two year in bottle

  • Grand Reserva:-

                          Two year in cask and two year in bottle                

3. Catolonia:-

  1. Tarragona:-  Largest  wine producing district in Catolonia. It produce famous dessert wine and also region able quality table wine

B. Alilla:-           Produce all style at region able quality wine among them best one is called “Merfil” white wine which means IVORY in Spanish.

C. Gerana:-       It produce good quality rose wine and also few good quality sparkling wine.

D. Penedes:-       Classical district of Catolonia produce fine and exllent quality red, white and also sparkling wine by traditional method.

4. Alicante:-

                       Produce good quality rose wine and ‘Vino-De-Double Pasta’  red wine. It is produce by adding double quantity of red grapes skin along with MUST(Unfermented grapes juice) which give deep and dark red colour.

Red Wine Brand Name of Spain

  • Campo Viejo Crianza
  • Marques De Gernon
  • Marques De Leon
  • Casme Palacio
  • Marques De Marano

White Wine Brand Name of Spain

  • Marques De Murrieta Capellania
  • Naveran Cara Dama De Naveran
  • Bodegas Angle
  • Conch Toro Riesling Forntera


Sherry is a fortified wine from Jerez city of Spain. The name sherry is protected by European Community wine making law and it may apply only to the wine of Jerez.

Soil :–  1. Albariza –  Rich in chalk

            2. Barro – Rich in clay

            3. Arona – Rich in clay

Grapes :- 1. Palo Mino – White

                 2. Pedro Ximenez (PX) – White

                 3.Moscatel – Red

Fermentation and Fortification :-

                The grapes are harvested in the month of September and then it is laid on esparado grass mat to dry the grapes. These grapes are crushed and pressed to extract juice.

                The 1st and 2nd pressed juice goes to fermentation to obtain base wine. Fermentation process is allowed till all the sugars gets over to get dry wine.

                 The rest of pressed juice is fermented and distilled to get brandy. These wine and brandy mixed in Sherry cask called ‘Butts’. This is lightly fortified. This will have 16.5% of alcohol.

                 During spring, a yeast layer like fungus forms on top of the wine because of air presence in the Butts. It forms up to 10 mm thick. This yeast layer is known as ‘Flor’.

                 This Flor gives flavor for light and dry sherry. The thick layer of the Flor is separated as “Fino”. The thin layer is separated as ‘Amantilado’. The wine with no layer is separated as “Oloroso”.

It is heavily fortified to stop the Flor growth in future. After the separation, these wines are allowed 24 months resting.

                After classification, the Fino gets its character because of the thick Flor. Amantilado gets its character because of thin layer. Oloroso gets in direct contact with air which result in richness, flavor and natural color.

Maturation :-  Sherry is also mature in Solera system like Madeira.

* Sherry can go up to 19% of alcohol.

* Sherry also called ‘Vino De Jerez’.

* Sherry is traditionally drink in a Capita (A special tulip shape glass).

Sherry Brands Name :-

  1. Alaska
  2. Alabama
  3. Colorado
  4. Florida
  5. Kirkwood
  6. Okley
  7. Clairol
  8. Flowery Branch

Wine of Portugese


                Portugese produce wonderfull fortified winr like Port and Madira and also produce natural table wine in differet quality.

Among the natural table wine “Array” is the full flavored and good quality wine it can be red or white.


                  Because of see, climate differ place to place.


          Chalk, lime stone, slate (Soften part of granite)

Red Grapes Name

  • Aguasanta
  • Bastardo
  • Touriga
  • Tinta Pinheira
  • Ramisco
  • Alvarellhao

White Grapes Name

  • Malvasia
  • Robigato
  • Arinto
  • Moscatel
  • Galijo
  • Alvarinhao

Quality Grading

                     Table Wine Category

  • Vinho-De-Mesa:-

                                                 It is local and simple wine. Produce for local consumption and every day drinking purpose.

  • Vinho-De-Regional:-

                                                  It is country wine produce from specified grapes and designated area. 


  • Denomincao De Origen Controlada (DOC) :-

                                           First quality wine of Portugal

  • Indicacao De Proveniencia Regulamentada (IPR) :-

                                                 It is introduced in 1989 most of first quality wine given IPR.           

Label Words

  • Bronco              -White
  • Rosado              -Rose
  • Tinta                  -Red
  • Espumante       -Sparkling
  • Colheita            -Harvest
  • Quinta               -Estate
  • Reserva             -Quality Wine
  • Adega                -Winery
  • Generoso          -Foptified Dessert Wine

    Region Names

     A.Bairrada :-

                         Situated in south of Oporto Bairrada known for  conic acid  wine which can be aged beyond 20 years in wood and bottle it also produce good quality wine by traditional method.

      B. Beiras :-

                   Product of Beiras is

  1. Light aromatic white wine
  2. Dry red wine
  3. Good quality sparkling wine
  4. Reasonable quality rose wine

        The red wine dominate this region. It produce very few good quality rose wine in Pinhel district. 

C. Minho :-

                      Produce young and fresh red & white wine called “Vinho Verde” means Green Wine. It reference to the character not to the color. In Portugal red Vinho verde is popular then the white wine

D. Dao :-

              Name Dao arise from a small river with in the region. Dao has many grape vineyard scoter around the town called Diseu. It is the classical region for red wine. It produce deep color body red wine, dark red wine, fruity white wine and also dry white wine.  

Others Region Names

  • Alentejo
  • Bucklais
  • Estremauro
  • Tras-as-mones
  • Algrave
  • Douro
  • Set

Brand Name

  • Finisterra                Red & White
  • Beira                        White
  • Lafoes                      White
  • Listoce                     White
  • Bucelas                    Sparkling
  • Obidos                     Sparkling
  • Alentejo                   Red


* Madeira is a fortified wine from ‘Portugal’. It is also an island which lies in Atlantic Ocean. It is 560 km from Lisbon(capital of Portugal). It was discovered by Captain Jaao Gonsalves.

* Climate – Sub tropical

* Soil – Volcanic

*Grapes Varieties :-

  1. Sercial (Sair – S – Yahi) Red
  2. Verdelho (Vair – Dayi – Yo) Red
  3. Bual (Boh – Ahl) White
  4. Malmsay (Mahm – Zee) White

* The grapes are grown on terraced surface(flat) by the coastal. These vineyards are high in altitudes. These vineyards need proper irrigation during dry periods to keep grapes healthy.

Most of the vineyards covered by Pergolas to protect grapes from sunrays. Each and every grape have their own style. The ‘Bual’ and ‘Verdelho’ grows at the sea level. These grapes are harvested first. The ‘Malmsay’ and ‘Sercial’ grows on terraced which is harvested later.

Fermentation and Fortification :-

                      The dry Madeira can be produced from “Sercial’ and ‘Verdelho’ grapes. The fermentation process is allowed till all sugar get over to make dry Madeira and after fermentation it is fortified.

                      For sweet Madeira, grapes are used ‘Bual’ and ‘Malmsay’. The fermentation process is arrested by adding unaged brandy to preserve the natural sweetness.

After fortification these wines spend few month in ‘Estufs System’.

It is established in 1800. it means heated chamber or room . It contain with tank which has capacity of 40,000 liters. These chambers are heated up slowly by increasing the temperature 5 Degree per day. Over a month, the temperature reaches 45-50 Degree. These wines are held in this temperature for minimum 3 months.

Some of the producers lower their temperature and keep the wine in ‘Estufa’ system for longer period. The temperature of ‘Estufa’ is strictly controlled by Portugal Govt. If the go beyond the limit, the seal which is provided by Govt. automatically breaks and these wines can’t be sold as Madeira.

The temperature is slowly cooled down. This gives the real and traditional burnt flavor to the wines. These are matured in ‘Solera System’ for 18 months and then bottled.


It has three parts.

  1. Anada :- This is 1st level. It is wine of the year develop in different character. Once it is mature it move to next level.
  2. Crideraa :- This is 2nd level. Blend of younger wine once it is mature it move to next level.
  3. Solera :- The wine finally reach solera and it remain in solera untill it is sent to bottling.

The ‘Solera’ word arise from Latin word called ‘Suelo’ which means Sole(bottom of the shoes). Here it means the bottom cask touching the ground. Group of cask placed on top of old wine cask at the bottom.

First 75% wine remove from Solera and fill from L2 cask, L2 cask are fill from L1 cask which has new wine.

 Style of Madeira

  1. Sercial – Dry Madeira
  2. Verdelho – Sweeter than Sercial
  3. Bual – Sweet and slightly reach
  4. Malmasy – Sweet and deep brown

 Producers Name

  1. Blandy
  2. Cossart Garden
  3. Leacock
  4. Rutherford
  5. Miles
  6. Lomelino

Grade of Madeira

  1. Reserve – It is 5 years old
  2. Special Reserve  – It is 10 years old
  3. Extra Reserve – It is 15 years old
  4. Finest – It is 3 years old

* Madeira goes well with cheese.

* Madeira was first shipped to Europe in 1515 to the court of King Frances of France.


Port is the great fortified wine. Also known as queen of fortified wines. The name port raised from the city “OPORTO” and the grapes grown in upper Douro Valley.

History :- In 1703, the Portuguese wine are exported to England at 1/3 less duty than the French wines. At that time ‘Douro Wines’ were red and sweet.

During the voyage to England very often, the 2nd fermentation would occur which result unpleasant taste when the wine was distributed.

To stop this, they added sufficient brandy to keep the wine healthy which stopped 2nd fermentation on its journey. This become success when they add brandy. Which was immediately popular as PORT wine.                                                       

Red Grapes :-

  1. Ristardo
  2. Touriga
  3. Francesa
  4. Tinta Cao
  5. Mouris Co

White Grapes :-

  1. Malvasia Fina
  2. Malvasia Rei
  3. Ravigato
  4. Verdelho
  5. Esgana Cao
  6. Viosinho
  7. Flogosao
  8. Donzelinho

The grapes are taken to centrifugalcrusher which removes the required amount of stalks and it crushes the grapes without breaking pips(seeds). Little amount of stalk is required for port making because it gives tannic acid taste. The must along with skin and stalk are pumped into “Auto Vinifier” for fermentation. It starts to ferment and build pressure. With the help of propelled must moving machine, the fermentation liquid is forced to the top of the vat. With the help of reservoir, the CO2 releases. Again it comes bottom through Malta.

During this time the color and tannic taste is distributed gradually. This process will go again and again. At the same time, sugar level monitored through Saccharometer. According to sweetness the fermentation is stopped by adding brandy.

If the producer wants to make dry port, they allow the fermentation till all sugars over and fortified.

If they want to make sweet port, according to sweetness level, it is fortified. For the fortification, they add unaged brandy though the same pipe. The adding proportion normally 100ltrs brandy to 450ltrs wine.

This wine will have 16.5% alcohol and it is rested so that the sediment settle at bottom. After this the port is transferred into maturation cask which is known as wooden pipe(cask).

It can hold 660 bottles to produces.

                                          Styles of Port

  1. White Port :- Its normally served in a tall glass with crushed ice, tonic water, asprigef, fresh buint to stalk lemon.
  2. Ruby Port :- It is simple young and fruity port in the market, its best use in cocktail mixture or for cooking.
  3. Tawny Port :- It is cask aged. Ruby port, the aging cask the color to change from purple to tawny brown. Tawny port can be aged 10, 20, 30, 40 years. Tawny port made from red grapes.
  4. Colheita :- Aged tawny from single vintage year.
  5. Vintage Port :- The best wine made with the best grapes from a single harvest. It is aged only for two year in wood cask. This wine develop slowly over a longer period(20-60 years) and develop heavy sediment that should be always decant.  
  6. Late Bottle Vintage Port :- Very similar to vintage port but it spend long time in wood and hence late bottle. It should be bottled after 4 years and before 6 years.
  7. Single Quinta :- Made from a single estate, it is made in same way as vintage port but the grapes comes from farm only vineyard.
  8. Crusted Port :- A blend of different years, bottle young and developing like vintage port.

                                        Service of Port

Port should be store at 55 -65 Degree F and port wines are must often serve at room temperature. Special reserve, fine tawny and aged tawny port may be serve slightly chill a warm weather, place the bottle in refrigerator for 45 mints to one hour to chill slightly.

Decanting :- Port wine must be decant before serve with out disrobing the sediment. And before decant the port it allow to rest at lest 24 hours for settle the sediment on the bottom and remove the cork carefully, decanting port is not a difficult but it need a steady hand and pure the wine in one decanter. When the sediment start to come in the neck of the bottle stop purring and discard the rest of port.

#. Traditionally consume as a accompany to cheese, dessert.

#. Lep bottle vintage goes well with game, buffalo, parting.

#. 20 years old tawny goes with dessert containing nuts and dry food.

#. Port wine also goes with chesnut, casnut, hazelnut and walnut.

#. Port is normally consume after dinner.

Brands Name

  1. Taylors
  2. Churchill
  3. Metdog
  4. Graham six Grape
  5. Fonaseca
  6. yalunba

Wines of U.S.A.

There are 50 state in U.S. 43 states are cultivating grapes for wine production.

                     California – 95%

                     New York –  2%

                     Washington – 1.8%

                     Others          –  1.2%

In U.S.A. there are generally two quality wine

  1. Table Wine :-

                                It is also called Jug or Carafe wine. It is chef and simplest wine consume in large quantity.

                               Traditionally sold during dinner time in all restaurant and bar. It is serve by carafe or jug.

2. Premium Wine :-

                                    Vineyard appointed graduate from California University. These master control fermentation temperature and techniques in making good wine . These are called best quality wines.

                                                         Quality Categories

AVA(American Viticulture Areas):-

                                                         It is completely control by BATF. It was formed in 1978,  AVA is    defined under regulation  as a delimited, grape growing region geographic feature, the boundaries of which happen recognize & define AVA must be made from not less than 85% of the grapes grower in the area.

                                                    Wine Producing Region

  1. Oregon :-

                       Vitivinifira (grape plant) where planted at Willonale Valley, it is along valley.

Famous Producers :- Mr. Egri, Mr. Pongi, Mr. Adelsheim


Pinot Gris (W)  &   Pinot Noir (R)

2. Washington :-

                              It is also important region for wine producing apart from California. Climate is damp towards sea site, eastern site sweltering summer.

Sub Region :- Yakina Valley (AVA)

                                  Red Grapes

1.Cabernet Sauvignon


                                  White Grapes




                                     Famous Wineries :-

1.Ataton Hill

2.Hagve Cellar


3. Idaho :-

                      Their climate is damp & eastern site sweltering summer the vineyard are planted at high in altitude.

White Grapes :-

  1. Riesling            2.Shenindlane

Red Grapes :-

  1. Cabernet Sauvignon

Here Mr. Stechappelle is producing high quantity of wine.

4. New York :-

                         Viticulture started in 19 century.

Famous growing sub region is “Finger Lake” (AVA)

And some others sub regions are

Hampton (AVA)

Northfork (AVA)

                         White Grapes

1.Seyval Blane



                              Red Grapes



3.Cabernet Sauvignon

4.Petite Cabernet

             5. Texas :-

                   Here wine industry started in 1970.

Famous Wineries :-





    White Grapes


      Red Grapes

1.Cabernet Sauvignon


  1. The United State is 4th largest wine producing country after France, Italy and Spain.
  2. Appellation in America is more than 400 years old.
  3. The USA labeling law are in forced by the alcohol and tobacco tax and trade Burdu. It insure that all wine produce in USA are with in the frame work of the USA wine laws.

Wine Information :- Brand identification or brand name this may be by the producer name, wineries name, growing area the name of the appellation where the wine originated, the grape verity trade mark.

4. Name and address of the bottler or producer. The word bottle by must producer name and address of the bottler, producer allowed if the bottler firm or clarification at list 75% of the wine.

5. Appellation of Origin :- The appellation system in USA is completely referee to AVA this AVA are best on district, climate geographic feature.   

Wine of California

California alone produce 95% wine of US wines. Its vineyard is Sandiego mission in  1697 started by Jessuit Priest. They imported grape plant and they used for blending in California  the wine production started after 1833 during this period AgastunHaraszthy from Hungry introduce No. of grape variety from Europe. He brought one lakh wine cutting from300 grape variety in 1861 During that time “Phyllooxera” arrived from Eastern U.S. and damage many vineyard in 1870. The vineyard of Napa, Sonama and Sacremente. There was a trick from  Nation wide prohibition of alcohol till 1920, they band wine. After 1933 the wine was allowed to consume for medical purpose. After 1960 they allowed to make Carafe wine.  


Here climate is different zone to zone generally rare rain during summer. They formed classic climate system it is best on the degree days. The scale is from I to V (Zone I –coolest  and Zone V-hottest) coastally region are classified as I,II,III they are producing premium wine

  White Grapes

  1. Sauvignon Blane
  2. Semillion
  3. Chardonnay
  4. Chenin Blane
  5. Fume Blane

Red Grapes

  1. Barbera
  2. Zinfandel
  3. Cabernet sauvignon
  4. Pinot Noir
  5. Merlot

Main Viticulture Areas

  1. North Coast region :-

           1. Napa Valley

           2. Sonama Valley                   

           3. Mandosena County

B. South Central Coast Region:-

           1. Santa YnezValley

           2. Santa Barbera County

           3. San Louis

  1. The California wines always have the name of the  producer.
  2. Style of wine :-Varietal base wine if it is mention Cabernet sauvignon then it is at least 75% of Cabernet sauvignon
  3. Region names
  4. Area of product
  5. Alcohol by ABV 

Wines of Argentina

It is the largest wine producing in South America. It is 5th place in world, 90% wine produce in Menedoza and Sanjuan and other wine producing areas are Rio Negro, Northern Vineyard.

The vineyard were largely planted by Italian immigrants toward end of 19th century. In 1970 Argentina wine becoming known in the UK market.

The vineyard area by nature is desert from the Andes river water has taken for irrigation. Most of the vineyard are quite small and grape are delivered to the co-operative seller. Most of wines are medium to low quality and drunk as thirst quencher.

Climate :-

                        Hot and dry

Grapes Variety

                       Red Grapes :-

  • Malbec
  • Tempranillo
  • Bonarda
  • Barbra
  • Cabernet Sauvignon
  • Coiraz

                      White Grapes :-

  • Chenin Blanc
  • Smillion
  • Pedro Ximinez (PX)


  • DOC :- Controlled Denomimacion of Origin

It is more common for wine to be named or label by region name e.g. Rio Negro, Cabayate & Mendoza.

Mendoza produce 80% of Argentina wine and there are some famous names

  1. Luigi Bosca
  2. Finca Flicman Bodeges
  3. Etchar

Salta is another region producing high quality wine with fine Cabernet sauvignon. Mr. Finca Colome is best producer in this region and other producer name is Mr. Michel Torino

Wines of Chile

Chile is belong to South America country and it is new world wine producing country started to develop 16th century.

Chile produce much less expensive wine than Argentina it is long narrow country Sandwich between Andas Mountain and Pacific Ocean most of the vineyard are in between middle of the country not for from Santigo. Here soil is fertile and irrigation done from river.

The climate is moderate and generally hot.

In expensive grapes are planted in the central valley the premium wines are produce in Rapel Valley, Maipo Valley, Casaplanca Valley.

                       Red Grapes

  • Cabernet Sauvignon
  • Carmenier

                      White Grapes

  • Chardonnay
  • Sauvignon Blanc

Appellation :-

DO :- Denomination of Origin    

Wines of Canada

Acid – 5 to 8 %

Sugar – 12 to 20 %

Water – 70 to 80 %

     100kg grapes=20% syrup

     Ice wine – Eishlein (German Word)

Till September harvest temperature maintain 15 degree C to 20 degree C for Ice wine production, the wine producer wait to temperature down (-7 to -12 degree C).

Harvest done at mid night because no chemical changes in plant during mid night and also favorable condition.

Canada is largest producer & exporter of ice wine due to climate. It is traditional like port style & sherry style wine but now it emgetine as a wine producing country.

If producer nature label wine in different quality & good quality.

     Normal Variety Grapes

  • Concord
  • Catawa
  • Niagara

 Hybrid Grapes

  • Maches Foch
  • Baconair
  • Vidal Blanc
  • Seyve Vidal

    Good Quality Grapes

White Grapes:-

  • Alligote
  • Chardonnay
  • Riesling
  • Gewurgtraminer

Red Grapes:-

  • Gamay
  • Pinot noir
  • Cabernet Sauvignon

Important Producing Places

  1. Ontario – Niagara
  2. British – Columbia

Other Places

  1. Nova Scota
  2. Alberte
  3. Qubec

               Production of Ice Wine

Grapes are used for Ice wine are white grapes like

  1. Vidal Blanc
  2. Riesling
  3. Gewurztraminer

The sweetest branches of grapes left during normal harvest till the temperature drop to-7 degree C or below this grapes normal have 75% of water. While pressing the frozen water is sported as 5 herbs means fragments of ice .

The remaining juice thick syrup which is allowed to stele for few days to clear from the dust. It is then pumped into fermentation time and yeast is added for fermentation. 

Because of the concentration and temperature the fermentation is very slow the rest of the wine making process is followed like normal wine.

*Best known Ice wine is Inniskillin

                        Ice wine Producers Name

  • Andre Wines
  • Bright Wines
  • Colio Wines
  • Landon Wines
  • Clare Wines
  • Inniskillin

                        Brands Name

  • Vidal Ice wine
  • Meles SNA Ice wine
  • Alibaba
  • Jeans
  • Crocodile

Character And Style of Ice Wine

It flavor of rite lychee, papaya and pineapple they are sweet but have firm back bone of acidity that’s make them perfect balance. Ice wine are often enjoy with dessert but also make a perfect combination of rich savory food such as Foiegrdsa or aged blue cheese.

Ice wine also used as a dosage for sparkling wine and as flavor full add sent to cocktail.


Ice wine production is regulated in Ontario under the VQA(Vitners Quality Alliance) act regulation stick standard are in place and production is monitored by VQA inspector from the vineyard. Rules covered grapes variety, harvest procedure, wine making and testing before the wine is release. No wine use the term Ice wine on it label it is certified by VQA Ontario. Violators can be charged in provincial court and subject to find up to 1 lakh dolor.  

Wine of Australia

In 1788 grape seeds and vine cutting brought to Australia by English Captain “Phillipe”. They started to cultivate in hot and humid climate . He fail to produce quality wine. In 1833 Mr. James Busby meet great success. During that time they had 461 accord of land and they use to produce two lakhs 50 thousand liters of wine and 4500 liters brandy.

Most of the vineyard are situated near to Sydney, Melbourne, Adalaid ans Perth. Central and north part of Australia have an unsuitable climate for wine production.

  States of Australia

  1. Vitoria :-

                    No more extensive place as it was a century ago. It suffered badly world wide “Phylloxera” plague, south Australia manage to escape the Colest Sadhan part of the state are producing fine quality sparkling wine.

The region of the state are:-

  1. Drumberg
  2. Geelong
  3. Great Western
  4. Glenrovem
  5. Milwa
  6. Peninsula
  7. Rutherglen
  8. Goulburn Valley
  9. Yara Valley
  10. Marington

2.South Australia : –

                     It produce some of famous wine and also situated international famous wineries. They produce mostly semillion, riesling. They also produce best desert wines. The regions of state are :-

                        A.    Clare Valley.

                        B.      River Land.

                        C.      Barrosa valley.

                        D.      Adelaide Hills.

                         E.      Maclaren Valley.

                        F.       Pathway

                        G.      Coonawar

3. Western Australia :-

                                    It is hottest region in Australia. Once it was main state of wine production but now it decline importance  as a result of identification of cooler side further south. Hougton wineries still produce white range of wine. Region of this state are :-

                 1. Margret River

                 2.  Luwergreat .

4. New south wales:-

                                    There climate is very hard and hot to

Cultivate grapes. The region of the state are :-

                        1. Coura  2. Mudge  3. Hunter Valley

5.Tasmania :-

                                    The main vineyard are :-

                                     A.  Piperbrook

                             B.  Launceston hobart

                                            Grapes Variety Of Australia

Around 60 grape variety is available in Australia but most of these are for experimental process.

White Grapes                            Red Grapes

  1. Chardonnay                        1. Shiraz
  2. Rhine                                    2.  Cabernet Sauvignon
  3. Riesling                                3.  Malbec
  4. Marasnne                            4.  Merlot
  5. Traminer                             5.  Petit Verdot
  6. Colombard                          6.  Cabernet Prane
  7. Sauvignon Blanc                7.  Pinot Noir
  8. Muscat

Wine Label

Australia wine label are very informative, 8% of the Australia wine indicate grapes and region name. If the label shows vintage wine the bottle must contain at list 95% of the product of the particular year. And Some Abbreviation s are:-

  1. VK-Victoria
  2. WA-Western Australia
  3. NSW-New South Wales
  4. SA-South Australia
  5. QUD-Queens Land
  6. TAS-Tasmania

Australia is the 4th largest exporter country in world.

Australia produce 760 millions of wines of every year.,Total wine produce is 2299.

At present 60 designated wine regions in Australia.

Australia Exporting wine more than 100 country in all over the world. 

  The Wineries Name

  • Casella Wines
  • Fosteri wines
  • Orland Wines
  • Richmond Grove
  • Tayloars
  • De Bortoli Wine
  • Penfold Grange
  • Walf Blass
  • Hardy Wines Yalumba
  • Berri Estate
  • Yellow Glen

 Brands Name

  • Shiraz Cabernet Sauvignon-Red-Hunter Valley
  • Shiraz-Red –South Estate Australia
  • Cabernet Sauvignon-Red-South Australia
  • Semillion Sauvignon-White-Victoria
  • Chardonnay Verdelho Sauvignon Blanc-White-Hunter Valley
  • Muscat-White-Victoria
  • Chardonnay-White-South Australia

Wine of New Zealand

In past 20 years the New Zealand have taken them to the fastest growing country in the world. New Zealand wine region are situated closed to the coast. The wine making began taking seriously in  1970. New Zealand has prove that they can produce commercial range of wine successfully. The wine growing regions are scattered through out and extensive stretch of North & South Island.

Climate :- The climate is damp and cool.

 North Island

A.Auckland :-

                          Here climate is warm but during harvesting is rain. So the grapes are brought from some other region for blending. This region makes red wine and sub zone are Mudakana and Waihke island.

Grapes :-  1.Merlot(Red)      2.Chardonnay(White)

B. Gisborne :-

                          It is situated in north coast. It produce good quality premium white wine.

Grapes :-       1.Chardonnay(White)           2.Cabernet Sauvignon(Red)

 C. Hawkes Bay :-

                               It is located farther down coast in the town of Napier. It is one of the largest vineyard region .

White Grapes:-Chardonnay, Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc

Red Grapes :- Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon

D. Wellington :-

                              Located in south tip of north Island. It is the capital of New Zealand. Sub region is Marti borough

Red Grapes:- Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir

White Grapes:- Riesling, Chardonnay

 South Island

  1. Nelson:-

                      It is Hilly region on finger of Tasmania mountain. Here climate is damp & cool.

Grapes:-   1. Chardonnay(White)    2.Riesling (White)    3.Pinot noir (Red)

B. Marlborough:-

                                It is situated in centre in town of Blenhein at north and it produce best wine of New Zealand since 1970. Here famous is white wine. Climate is cool, mistyoutman & dry. In Marlborough the sparkling wine are also papular.

White Grapes:- Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot & Pinot Noir

Red Grapes:- chardonnay, Riesling & Semillion

C. Canterbury :-

                                It is in central of city of Crist Chirch this vineyard are cobler.

Red Grapes :- Pinot Noir

White Grapes :- Chardonnay, Riesling & Pinot Blanc

D. Central Otago :-

                                  It is situated Eastern the town of Queen Island. It New Zealand smallest wine region.


Pinot Noir(Red)


Brand Name

  • Pinot Noir – Marlboroug
  • Gisborne – Chardonnay
  • Sauvignon Blanc – Marlboroug

Wines of South Africa

South Africa is the oldest in new world wine producing country. In 1658 Mr. Jon Van Riebeck from Dutch planted the grape plants. During 18th and 19th century the famous desert wines called “Constania” produced in large quantity. At the end of 19th century the over production leads diminishing its quality.

         In 1861 Mr. Gladstone(English Man) reduced the tax on French wines. Because of that French wines entered into the South Africa market.

         In 1885 South Africa was attacked by Phylloxera and it destroyed many vineyards.

         In 1918, KWV :- Ko – Operative – Wijinbouwera Verene formed traditionalizing the making wine and marketing. KWV means Co-operative wine growers association. Now a days 95% of the wine exporters are from this association.

         South Africa is the 8th largest wine producer in the world. The best regions are nearby coastal areas. Cape town is the centre of wine production because of its climate.

  Grapes Name in South africa

Red Grapes :-

  1. Cabernet Sauvignon
  2. Gamay
  3. Shiraz
  4. Cinsault
  5. Pinot Noir
  6. Pinotaz
  7. Tinta Barocca

White Grapes :-

A. Steen                                                    B. Semillion

C. Cape Riesling                                      D. Sauvignon Blanc

E. Chardonnay                                F. Gewurztraminer

The regions name of South Africa

  1. Constania
  2. Durban Valley
  3. Stellen Bosch
  4. Swartland
  5. Paarl
  6. Turbagh
  7. Worcester
  8. Robertson
  9. Swellen Dam

Label on South Africa wines

The  wines and spirits get issued awards in four horizontal colored background for label which are as follows.

  1. Blue –  States region/origin
  2. Red –  vintage year wine
  3. Green – means wine produced by indicated grape/cultiver grape
  4. Black – estate name.

White Wine :-

                         Best known white wine are produce in Stellen Bosch, Paarl, Turbagh, and Constania. Paarl and Turbagh have hot and dry climate. Because of its climate many wine producer harvest the grapes at midnight and also they follow cool fermentation technique which leave good quality and freshness of the wine.

Desert Wine :-

                          The Constania produce wonderfull desert wine which is called “Vin – De – Constania”.

Fortified Wine :-

                           South Africa produces Port style and sherry style fortified wines. The sherry style is famous in South Africa. These are the best sherries outside Spain.

#. Yearly production 264 million Galan which regularly put the country among top 10 wine producing country in the world.

#. In 1930 they form SAWFA(South African Wine Farmer Association)

#. 50-50 joint venture with British agent is took total control after 2nd world war.

#. France, Spain and California have brought new technique and style to South Africa.

#. In 1980 the use of oak cask for fermentation and maturation became popular.

#. The use of chaptalization in south Africa is illegal.

#. More often wine produce have problem with low acidy label in  the wine which require some supplementation with additional acid like tartaric acid.

#. Vintage wine must be composed of at lest 85% grapes from vintage year.

#. The South Africa wine and spirit Board operate a voluntary program that allow South Africa wine to be certified for quality and accuracy in labeling.

#. The wine and spirit Board also operate the South Africa wine industry trust (SAWIT) which serve as funding for the marketing and developing the South African wine industry trust. It was established in 1999 by joint venture between South Africa Govt. and the KWV which put fort 369 million rands.

#. SAWIT work to per mote the export market of South Africa.

   Brands Name of South African Wine

  1. Shiraz Premium – Red
  2. Stellen Bosch – Red – Shiraz
  3. Major’s Hill – Red – Pinotage – Robertson
  4. Sauvignon Blanc – Worcester – White
  5. Chenin Blanc – Worcester – White
  6. Boschendal – Red – Cabernet Sauvignon
  7. Cabernet Sauvignon – Camberley – Red

Service Temperature of Wines

Wine Terms For Beginners

In the beginning,

Wine terms can be very intimidating.

One of my friend he was sitting at dinner once with a french family, drinking some great wine. When a second bottle was opened, it was discussed heatedly in french. he had been there long enough to know what was going on and the mother didn’t realize this. She was offended by the wine and the fact that he had been given the last glass of the “good wine.” Hers was only good for the bushes and there it went.

he determined then to teach others, so they would not be as clueless as he was in the beginning. Save yourselves from listening to someone talk about what you don’t know in yours or another language.

If you know the lingo, you will be more confident and comfortable while drinking.

Since when is wine about anything other than enjoyment and comfort?

We all start somewhere. Use my knowledge so that you know more than I did when I started.

This wine dictionary is full of terms that I have found helpful and I will constantly be updating it as I find more of them.

 It will give you:
-Wine vocabulary
-Suggestions of wine to try, in order to better help you understand the term.

Acidity of Wine

The acidity of wine, is like the spark, or aliveness that a wine has. Europeans commonly refer to it as a wine’s crispness. This doesn’t translate well for a beverage in English but get to know the description. You will run into it with different types of white wine

Red wines are much less likely to be referred to as crisp. Their secondary or maloactic fermentation somewhat neutralizes this. White wines on the other hand such as Sauvignon Blanc and Riesling, commonly are crisp.

Another way to think of it is, if you bite into a green grape that has not been on the vine to ripen and then a ripe grape, your mouth will pucker with the green grape. This is the acidity in the grape.

One other reason that a wine will be less acidic is the terroir of the area where the grapes are grown. Hot areas, lead to riper grapes, increasing the sugars. More sugar equals less acid and a warmer, softer wine.

If you want to see the difference between a highly acidic wine and a less acidic wine, try a Riesling and a Chardonnay. Chardonnay will melt on your tongue, but the Riesling will make your tongue come to life. That is acidity.

Body of Wine

Body of wine describes the fullness or the lightness of it on your palate. Another wine body term is fat. Most people prefer one or the other.

It used to be a strict rule and still is in some parts of the world that full bodied wines, typically reds, are for the winter. Lighter wines, that are a bit more refreshing, are served in the summer. In these areas, roses may be served year round, although they may wait until spring.

Who knew that wine could depend on a climate? I have no preference. Drink wine according to what you like and according to what you eat.

For some great examples of this term, please see Wine Terms: Fat . We give an example involving milk that is hard to beat when figuring this term out.

Also, for a quick comparison, try a Pinot Noir (light) versus a Cabernet Sauvignon (heavy/fat), or a Sauvignon Blanc (light) versus a Chardonnay (heavy).


This term refers to the amount of sugar in a wine after fermentation. Dry wine types have sugars that have all been used up to create alcohol. Sweet wine types have not used up all of their sugars to create alcohol. Sweet is commonly confused with fruity but if you try any typical red wine or white wine and compare it to a dessert wine you will taste the difference between this and a fruity drier wine. This is not about the fruitiness of a wine but its sweetness.

Pick a red or a white wine, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, or Sauvignon Blanc.
Pick a dessert wine or a fortified wine. I would recommend a Muscat Canelli, or a Port, for instance.
Both have distinctly fruity flavors but you will see that the red or white wine lack the sweetness of the dessert wine.

Fat Wine

Fat wine is a reference to the fullness of it and its acidity. A full bodied red wine is heavy on the tongue and the taste lingers. A flabby white wine has too little acidity, and it comes off as flat. I like to think of fat as having the PHAT (pretty hot and tempting) connotation versus flabby, not very attractive. Red wines are typically more full bodied than white wines .

A Cabernet Sauvignon and a Pinot Noir are good opposites in that regard.

If you prefer whites, try comparing a Pinot Grigio to a Chardonnay. The Pinot in each of these cases doesn’t hang around in your mouth the way that the Chardonnay and the Cabernet do.

Another great example that I took from “Great Wine Made Simple,” by Andrea Immer, is to compare:

-Nonfat milk (Pinot Noir or Pinot Grigio)
-Whole milk
-Cream (Chardonnay or Cabernet Sauvignon)

You don’t even have to go through the test to understand what heavy and full bodied means. Cream almost drips down your throat, while nonfat milk definitely flows.

Legs of Wine

The first time I heard someone mention the legs of wine I thought they were crazy. Now I know just how sane they were. I didn’t know that watching wine drip down a glass could be so beautiful. Besides, this makes talking about wine legs sound much more attractive and seductive.

Full bodied wines drip slowly down a glass due to glycerin that is formed during fermentation. While a lighter bodied wine will dissipate quickly and doesn’t hold together as it drips down the glass.

A good picture of this is water versus cream. Water will quickly leave the sides of a glass and join its contents below. Cream drips slowly, its more viscous and takes its time. Meandering into the glass below.

Wines do the same thing and when a wine meanders, it is more full bodied and: It has great legs.


Tannic refers to the way a wine makes your mouth pucker. If you don’t know what that feels like, think of a cup of unsweetened black tea. That bitter flavor is what we are talking about. A little harsh to drink.

It is rarely associated with white wines. This is because this flavor comes from contact in red wines with the skins, seeds and stems. The thicker the skin of a red wine’s grapes the more tannins.

Another description in regards to this is velvety. A velvety wine may leave your mouth feeling “fuzzy.” The beauty of these acids is that they:

-slow oxidation in wine
-mellow with age
-produce sediment in wine.

They are also the reason that a wine may close and open. Meaning that initially fruit flavors may override the bitter taste but as these young berry flavors mellow, the tannins come to the front of the wine. They are overbearing for a couple of years and then mellow to the point of the wine opening, or becoming palatable again.

They are one of the reasons that Cabernet Sauvignons are so hard to drink young, but age well. Because people like to drink them straight off the shelf, it is rare to find a Cabernet that has not been blended with Merlot and/or Cabernet Franc.

Examples of wines that taste this way are Cabernet Sauvignon and Nebbiolo. Both are thick skinned grapes and their wines get better with age. If you would like to compare them to a other less “fuzzy” wines, try a Beaujolais or a Pinot Noir. They both are ready to drink almost as soon as they are bottled.

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